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Виртуальная экскурсия по медицинскому комплексу
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Protons force out the lancet

President of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences M.Davydov:  

“… Annually, about 500 thousand people become ill with cancer in Russia and about 300 thousand people a year die of oncological diseases. For today, around 2.5 million oncological patients are registered at medical institutions…”

People in Russia react to the diagnosis “cancer” only in one way – it’s a shock. And Russian citizens somehow consider a surgical operation the most radical treatment of it: “to cut it off – and never have it anymore!” However, a surgical operation is not “a plaster for all sores”.

Radiation therapy is one of the main methods to treat this disease. It is recommended to be applied in 50-70% of cases, as an independent method or combined with other methods of treatment (for example, surgery and chemotherapy). The list of indications to apply it is constantly growing.

Fore more than a hundred of years in the Radiation Therapy history, the dose concentration in the target has been the issue of technological battle. At present, the most widespread types of radiation – photon beams of linear accelerators – have reached the technological modernization limit. Further progress in the dose concentration issue in the exposure area is connected to the application of protons and heavier charged ions.

Hadron therapy method is a technique for treatment of oncological diseases by exposure to nuclear particles (protons, ionized atoms etc.). Protons diminish 2-3 times the radiation load on the normal tissue around the tumour, in comparison to gamma-rays. The proton (hadron) therapy method is very sensitive and allows treatment of deep seated tumours, including those in brain, with minimal impact on healthy tissues.

Proton-beam therapy (PBT) is one of the most promising and fast developing trends in modern radiation medicine.  The physical-technological, medical-biological and clinical research held in recent years showed that, provided a number of requirements are observed, PBT permits higher clinical results (in comparison to the conventional radiation sources) bringing down at the same time the treatment course expenses.  In some cases PBT is the only method of treatment with no alternative. To date, about 50 thousand patients with various oncological and other severe diseases have taken a PBT course. The proton-beam therapy in oncology has become a real alternative to surgery. 

Hadron therapy research has been conducted in Dubna since 1967. Today, about 100 patients a year receive treatment at the large research accelerator. The results of constant monitoring prove high efficiency of the treatment techniques applied.

It deserves mentioning that until computer tomographic scanners and 3D systems for exposure scheduling were applied, the proton potential could not be used to the full extent. The last seven years have brought about a breakthrough in the level of the modern proton therapy at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems. The method of 3D conformal proton radiation therapy and radiosurgery has been developed here and is successfully applied on the basis of the computer (CT) and magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), and 3D exposure scheduling.

These are the following types of intracranial pathology treated at the Medico-Technical Complex:

  • Neuroma of the cranial nerves
  • Meningioma
  • Hypophysis adenoma
  • Malignant metastases into cerebrum
  • Arteriovenous malformations  
  • Cavernous angioma (cavernoma)  
  • Trigeminal neuralgia
  • Glioma (I – IV malignance states), ependymoma, medulloblastoma
  • Pinealoma, chordoma, craniopharyngioma, hemangioma and other tumours